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By M. Joseph Hutzler, Escatologist

How The Hyksos Invasion Of Ancient Egypt Changed History

The Hyksos (/ˈhɪksɒs/Egyptian ḥqꜣ(w)-ḫꜣswtEgyptological pronunciation: heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of foreign lands"


The Hyksos were a people of diverse origins, possibly from Western Asia
who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.


The arrival of the Hyksos led to the end of the Thirteenth Dynasty and initiated the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt. In the context of Ancient Egypt, the term "Asiatic" may refer to people native to areas east of Egypt.

Immigration by Canaanite populations preceded the Hyksos. Canaanites first appeared in Egypt at the end of the 12th Dynasty c.1800 BC or 1720 BC and established an independent realm in the eastern Nile Delta. The Canaanite rulers of the Delta regrouped and founded the Fourteenth Dynasty, which coexisted with the Egyptian Thirteenth Dynasty. The power of the 13th and 14th Dynasties progressively waned, perhaps due to famine and plague.

The 15th Dynasty of Egypt was the first Hyksos dynasty. It ruled from Avaris but did not control the entire land. The Hyksos preferred to stay in northern Egypt since they infiltrated from the northeast. The names and order of their kings is uncertain. The Turin King list indicates that there were six Hyksos kings, with an obscure Khamudi listed as the final king of the 15th Dynasty. 


The Hyksos occupation was later described as a highly traumatic event for the Egyptian people, but it is not clear whether this was actually the view of contemporary Egyptians who lived under their control. From Avaris the Hyksos 15th dynasty ruled most of Lower Egypt and the Nile valley as far south as Cusae.  The 16th-dynasty rulers who were minor Hyksos kings ruled in Upper Egypt simultaneously with those of the 15th dynasty. Much of ancient Egypt was under the control of the Hyksos at this time.

Pharaoh Kamose’s father started the initiatives to remove the Hyksos from power and it quite possible that he lost his life in battle with the Hyksos. Kamose sought to extend his rule northward over all of Lower Egypt, but he was met with much opposition. He was killed in a battle and his mother Ahhotep I and brother Ahmose I continued the campaign against the Hyksos.

Pharaoh Ahmose I completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan. He also founded the 18th Dynasty, New Kingdom and this was the beginning of ancient Egypt’s Golden Age. Pharaoh Ahmose I laid the foundations under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to the mid-16th century BC.

However, the Hyksos invasion changed the history of ancient Egypt in many ways. The experience of the long foreign occupation resulted in that Pharaoh Ahmose I established buffer zones between Egypt and its Asian foes.


The period when the 500-meter long ‘giant fence’ was built near the ancient city of Avaris in Egypt coincided with the invasion of Egypt of the Hyksos. The emerging Egyptian empire stretched from Sudan to the south, across Syria in the north, Iraq to the east. Ancient Egyptians were now able to bring home war trophies and slaves from neighbouring countries that were also forced to pay taxes to the New Kingdom.


Ancient Egypt experienced a new wave of technological, cultural and religious developments, highly influenced by the Mitanni Kingdom, the Hittite Empire, and Mesopotamia. Foreign diplomats, merchants, and craftsmen moved to ancient Egypt.


The war with the Hyksos led to that the Egyptians established their first standing army.

The Full Bible Timeline displays at a glance, the earliest cultures, and kingdoms that exerted their influence over the world. Discover the timeline for the ancient Egyptian Dynasties, the rise of Assyrian, Persia, Greece, and Rome empires, all the way to the present day. 
A detailed historical record of these ancient kingdoms is displayed across the top length of the chart and parallels the lower display of the biblical genealogies. You can easily review the top timeline and match it to biblical events that are illustrated in the lower chart section. Match up the moment of the flood to the Egyptian flood story as mentioned in their own writings. Review the lifespan of Joseph and discover his birth year and the years of his life in Egypt. You can also see clearly the connection between his death and the rise of a Pharaoh who 'knew not Joseph'. Who was he and where did he come from? Well, Egyptian history clearly tells us about the war and the 'new' Pharaoh who came to power after the death of Joseph. 

This Full Bible Timeline follows these ancient kingdoms along the entire top length of the chart through these great empires and continues after the fall of the Jewish Temple in 70AD. This brought about the great dispersion as Jews fled to the corners of the world to escape the persecution that Rome was bringing to Israel. The chart highlights the following centuries of Jewish expulsion from one nation after another as the Jewish people continued to be chased out of countries and persecuted time after time. 

The chart continues right into present day and presents the two main theories of eschatology that is preeminent today, along with the Jewish understanding of end times and what they have taught for thousands of years.

I am sure you will find this chart both easy to read and follow as you see how detailed and accurate the Bible is and has been. It is so important today to have a clear picture of the passage of time so that we can properly understand the present. 


Egypt was invaded by a group of foreigners who according to the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus called themselves Hyksos. The Hyksos people were a mixed, West Asian people. The Hyksos established a powerful empire in large parts of ancient Egypt that lasted over 100 years before the pharaoh Kamose, the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty started a war of liberation from his seat of power in southern Egypt.

Josephus mistranslated Hyksos as "Shepherd Kings", but Hyksos was most likely an Egyptian term for “rulers of foreign lands” (heqa-khase), and it almost certainly designated the foreign dynasts rather than an ethnic group. Modern scholarship has identified most of the Hyksos kings’ names as Semitic.

Ahmose I and Tablet Records/Luxor Museum

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